Nepal covers an area of 147,181 square kilometers, and stretches 145-241 kilometers north to south and 850 kilometers west to east. The country is located between India in the south and China in the north. Nepal is topographically divided into three regions: the Himalaya to the north, the hills consisting of the Mahabharat range and the Churia Hills in the middle, and the Terai to the south. Elevations are varied in the country. The highest point is Mt. Everest (8848 m) in the north and the lowest point (70 meters above sea level) is located at Kechana Kalan of Jhapa District. Altitude increases as you travel south to north. To the north temperatures are below -40 degrees Celsius and in the Terai, temperatures rise to 40 degrees Celsius in the summer.
Nepal has four distinct seasons. Spring, from March to May is warm and dusty with rain showers. Summer, from June to August, is the monsoon season when the hills turn lush and green. Autumn, from September to November, is cool with clear skies, and is the most popular trekking season. In winter from December to February, it is cold at night and can be foggy in the early morning but afternoons are usually clear and pleasant, though there is occasional snow in the mountains.
Weather condition in Nepal varies from region to region. Summer and late spring temperatures range from more than 40 Degrees Celsius in the Terai to about 28 Degrees Celsius in the hilly region of the country. In winter, average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Terai range from a mild 23 Degrees Celsius to a brisk 7 Degrees Celsius while the central valley’s experience a chilly 12 Degrees Celsius maximum temperature and a minimum temperature often falling below freezing point.
Much colder temperatures prevail at higher elevations. The Katmandu Valley situated at an altitude of 1310 m, has a seasonable but equable climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 27 Degrees Celsius to 19 Degrees Celsius and 20 Degrees Celsius to 2 Degrees Celsius respectively. The annual rainfall in Katmandu generally exceeds 1300 mm. The mean annual precipitation ranges from more than 6000 mm along the southern slopes of the Annapurna range in central Nepal to less than the 250 mm in the north central portion near the Tibetan plateau. Amounts varying between 1500 and 2500 mm predominate over most of the country. On an average, about 80% of the precipitation is confined to the monsoon period (June-September).